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Standardization of cement

Public significance

As Portland cement is considered to be a product of particular importance for the stability and security of facilities he is subject of mandatory implementation of conformity assessment procedure, which consists of a series of measurements and activities. In Serbia the appropriate regulation is the Rulebook On Cement Quality (“Official Gazette of the RS No. 34/2013 and 44/2014 hereinafter referred to as Rulebook).

Cement Laboratory
Cement Flow Testing
Cement Time Setting

Types and composition of cements

The provisions of the Rulebook shall apply to the following cements:
1. Common Portland cement;
2. Sulfate resisting common cement;
3. White Portland cement;
4. Low heat common Portland cement;
5. Calcium aluminate cement.

According to Rulebook, common Portland cements are grouped into the following five varieties:
1. CEM I Portland cement;
2. CEM II Portland – composite cement;
3. CEM III Blastfurnace cement;
4. CEM IV Pozzolanic cement;
5. CEM V Composite cement.

The composition of the common Portland cements by individual types are shown in Table 1.
The composition of the Sulfate resisting common Portland cements by individual types are shown in Table 2.

Strength classes of cement

Cements are according to standard strength grouped into three classes, they being:
• Class 32,5
• Class 42,5
• Class 52,5

Three classes of early strength are defined for each class of standard strength:
• Class with ordinary early strength – N
• Class with high early strength – R
• Class with low early strength – L
Class L can be applied only on CEM III cements.

Additional perfomance of cement

Sulfate resisting common Portland cements are identified by the notation SR.
Low heat common Portland cements are identified by the notation LH.

Labeling

In technical, commercial and other documentation, as well as on bags, according to the Rulebook, cement are designated with the following mark : X Y (Z), where: 
X designates the type of cement
Y designates the class of standard strength of cement
Z designates the additional (optional) label for sulfate resisting common cements and low heat common cements.
The link between labeling of types of cement according to the Rulebook and standards SRPS EN 197-1 and SRPS 14647 is shown in Table 3.

Conformity assesment

Characteristics of quality of common Portland cements for mandatory assessment of conformity are tested through the implementation of methods determined in the following standards:

SRPS EN 196- 1:2008 Methods of testing cement - Part 1: Determination of strength
SRPS EN 196-2:2008 Methods of testing cement - Part 2: Chemical analysis of cement
SRPS EN 196-3:2010 Methods of testing cement - Part 3: Determination of setting times and saundness
SRPS EN 196-5:2012 Methods of testing cement - Part 5: Pozzolanicity test for pozzolanic
cement
SRPS EN 196-6:2011 Methods of testing cement – Part 6: Determination of fineness
   
SRPS EN 196-8:2011 Methods of testing cement - Part 8: Heat of hydration - Solution method
SRPS EN 196-9:2011 Methods of testing cement - Part 9: Heat of hydration - Semi-adiabatic method
SRPS EN 196-10:2010 Methods of testing cement - Part 10: Determination of the water-soluble chromium (VI) content of cement
SRPS CEN/TR 196-4:2009 Methods of testing cement – Part 4: Quantitative determination of constituents
SRPS B.C8.023:1997 Cement - Determination of bulk density
SRPS EN 13639:2011 Determination of total organic carbon in limestone
ISO 9277:2010 Determination of the specific surface area of solids by gas adsorption using the BER method

Table 1 – Main types of cement and composition

Composition in percentage by mass1)

Main types Notation of the 27 products
(types of common cement)
Composition  (percentage by mass % a))  
Main constituents Minor additional constituents
Clinker Blast furnace slag Silica fume Pozzolan Fly ash Bunt shale Limestone
natural Natural calcined siliceous calcareous
Name Notation K S D b) P Q V W T L LL
CEM I Portland cement PC 95-100 - - - - - - - - - 0 to 5
CEM II Portland – slag cement PC 20S 80-94 6-20 - - - - - - - - 0 to 5
PC 35S 65-79 21-35 - - - - - - - - 0 to 5
Portland –silica fume cement PC 20D 90-94 - 6-10 - - - - - - - 0 to 5
Portland –pozzolan cement PC 20P 80-94 - - 6-20 - - - - - - 0 to 5
PC 35P 65-79 - - 21-35 - - - - - - 0 to 5
PC 20Q 80-94 - - - 6-20 - - - - - 0 to 5
PC 35Q 65-79 - - - 21-35 - - - - - 0 to 5
Portland – fly ash cement PC 20V 80-94 - - - - 6-20 - - - - 0 to 5
PC 35V 65-79 - - - - 21-35 - - - - 0 to 5
PC 20W 80-94 - - - - - 6-20 - - - 0 to 5
PC 35W 65-79 - - - - - 21-35 - - - 0 to 5
Portland –burnt shale  cement PC 20T 80-94 - - - - - - 6-20 - - 0 to 5
PC 35T 65-79 - - - - - - 21-35 - - 0 to 5
Portland –limestone cement PC 20L 80-94 - - - - - - - 6-20 - 0 to 5
PC 35L 65-79 - - - - - - - 21-35 - 0 to 5
PC 20LL 80-94 - - - - - - - - 6-20 0 to 5
PC 35LL 65-79 - - - - - - - - 21-35 0 to 5
Portland –composite b) PC 20M 80-88 <-----------------------------12-20 ----------------------------> 0 to 5
PC 35M 65-79 <--------------------------------21-35 -------------------------> 0 to 5
CEM III Blast furnace cement M 35K 35-64 36-65 - - - - - - - - 0 to 5
M 20 K 20-34 66-80 - - - - - - - - 0 to 5
M 5K 5-19 81-95 - - - - - - - - 0 to 5
CEM IV Pozzolanic cement c) P 35 65-89 - <-----------------11-35 ---------------> - - - 0 to 5
P 55 45-64 - <----------------- 36-55 ---------------> - - - 0 to 5
CEM V Composite cement c) MP 30 40-64 18-30 - <--------18-30-------> - - - - 0 to 5
MP 50 20-38 31-49 - <--------31-49-------> - - - - 0 to 5
a) The values in the Table refer to the sum of the main and minor additional constituents. 
b) The proportion of silica fume is limited to 10%.
c) In Portland-composite cements PC 20M and PC 35M, in pozzolanic cements P 35 and P 55 and in composite cements MP 30 and MP 50 the main constitutes other than clinker shall be declared by designation of the cement.

Table 2 – Main types of sulfate resisting common cements and composition

Main types Notation of the 7 products
(types of sulfate resisting common cement)
Composition (percentage by mass %)
Main constitutes  Minor additional constituents
Clinker Gran. blast furnace slag Pozzolan natural Siliceous fly ash
K 1 S P V  
CEM I Sulfate resisting Portland cement  PC-SR 0 95-100 - - - 0-5
PC-SR 3
PC-SR 5
CEM III Sulfate resisting blast furnace cement  M 20K-SR 20-34 66-80 - - 0-5
M 5K-SR 5-19 81-95 - - 0-5
CEM IV Sulfate resisting pozzolanic cement  P 35- SR 65-79 - <--------------21-35---------> 0-5
P 55- SR 45-64 - <--------------36-55---------> 0-5
1 Chemical composition of clinker must be in compliance with the defined in Table 5 of Rulebook on cement quality

Table 3 – The link between labeling of type of cement

Family of common Portland cements
Main type Cement type Article 16 SRPS EN 197-1
CEM I Portland cement PC CEM I
CEM II Portland-slag cement PC 20S CEM II/A-S
PC 35S CEM II/B-S
Portland-silica fume cement  PC 20D CEM II/A/D
Portland-pozzolan cement  PC 20P CEM II/A-P
PC 35P CEM II/B-P
PC 20Q CEM II/A-Q
PC 35Q CEM II/B-Q
Portland-fly ash cement PC 20V CEM II/A-V
PC 35V CEM II/B-V
PC 20W CEM II/A-W
PC 35W CEM II/B-W
Portland-burnt shale cement  PC 20T CEM II/A-T
PC 35T CEM II/B-T
Portland-limestone cement  PC 20L CEM II/A-L
PC 35L CEM II/B-L
PC 20LL CEM II/A-LL
PC 35LL CEM II/B-LL
Portland composite cement PC 20M CEM II/A-M
PC 35M CEM II/B-M
CEM III Blast furnace cement M 35K CEM III/A
M 20K CEM III/B
M 5K CEM III/C
CEM IV Pozzolanic cement P 35 CEM IV/A
P 55 CEM IV/B
CEM V Composite cement MP 30 CEM V/A
MP 50 CEM V/B
Family of sulfate resisting common cements
CEM I Sulfate resisting Portland cement  PC-SR 0 CEM I-SR 0
PC-SR 3 CEM I-SR 3
PC-SR 5 CEM I-SR 5
CEM III Sulfate resisting blast furnace cement  M 20K-SR CEM III/B-SR
M 5K-SR CEM III/C-SR
CEM IV Sulfate resisting pozzolanic cement  P 35- SR CEM IV/A-SR
P 55- SR CEM IV/B-SR
Calcium aluminate cement
Main type Cement type Article 13 of the Rulebook SRPS EN 14647
- - AC CAC