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Production trends and usages of cement

Market demands

Increased use of cement allowed for an accelerated growth of the construction industry, particularly of concrete constructions, but also the reverse, the development of the construction industry presented cement producers with increased requirements, which were gradually overcome.

Designers and drafters require high-strength cements, with particular emphasis on the dynamics of hardening, but other specific characteristics as well: decreased heat of hydration for the construction of massive concrete constructions, increased chemical resistance (primarily sulfates and acid medias) , less shrinking and other demands. In all this, maximum attention is dedicated to uniformity of content, meaning at the same time the usable qualities of cement.

Cement is an unavoidable raw material in all aspects of construction, from construction of house buildings, business and industrial buildings and installations, bridges, tunnels and roads, ending with subterranean works and subsoils. In other words, whenever and wherever concrete and mortar are required, that is:

  • Superplasticized concrete with high compressive strength – HPC concretes (High Performance Concretes);
  • Prestressed constructions and concrete products;
  • Precast concrete (lamp-post, kerb blocks, bearers for roof constructions, bearers for halls and crane rail);
  • Concrete slabs for courtyards and squares;
  • Concrete products requiring rapid de-installation or rapid de-installing of forms;
  • Lightweight concretes, that is “cellular” or “hollow” concretes, gas concrete and foamed concrete;
  • Classic concrete (pumping, self-compacting);
  • Cement and flexible mortar;
  • Dry mortars (adhesives for ceramic tiles and polystyrene, dry mixtures for concrete floors and pointing, ready-mix mortars for sanation or intended for injecting, grouting, mortars and mortars for plastering).

Up to now, concrete as a construction material has developed towards improvement of compressive strengths while in the future it is to be expected that improvements in other features will be attained as well, such as modulus of elasticity, flexural strength, dynamic strength, permeability and durability. Certain improvements have been attained in some mineral additives contained in cement, such as granulated blastfurnace slag, fly ash, limestone, etc.

 

World Production and World trends

Starting from the 2008 when world economy was affected by the macroeconomic crisis, global uncertainty in macroeconomic trends lasted until the second half of 2013 when clear signs of improvement in economic sentiment and growth perspectives were appeared in the most regions of the world. Developing countries continued to outperform developed economies, which led to divergences in economic parameters among different regions of the world. In particular, growing domestic demand in emerging economies offset the decline in exports stemming from subdued demand in advanced economies.

World cement production in 2016 is estimated at 4.65 billion tons, translating into 16.25% increase compared to 2015. These results reflect the improving macroeconomic conditions worldwide and recent developments in cement demands in large developing countries.

In 2016 China gained increase in cement production of 2,55 %, compared to 2015 which is followed up in Saudi Arabia and India. Cement production has continued to grow in 2016 compared to the previous year in EU28, USA, Turkey, Japan, Mexico and Australia.

 

Main world producers

Cement production (million tons)

Country

2001

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

China

661,0

1.388.4

1.664,0

1.881,9

2.063,2

2.137,0

2.420,0

2.480,0

2.350,0

2.410,0

India

102,9

185,0

205,0

220,0

270,0

239,0

280,0

260,0

270,0

290,0

European Union (28)

225,8

251,8

201,3

191,0

195,5

159,2

166,6

166,8

167,2

169,1

USA

88,9

86,3

63,9

65,2

68,6

74,0

77,4

83,2

83,4

85,9

Turkey

30,0

51,4

54,0

62,7

63,4

63,8

72,7

71,2

71,4

75,4

Indonesia

31,1

38,5

36,9

39,5

45,2

53,5

56,0

65,0

65,0

63,0

Saudi Arabia

20,0

37,4

37,8

42,5

48,0

43,0

57,0

55,0

55,0

61,0

Brazil

39,4

51,6

51,7

59,1

63,0

68,0

70,0

72,0

72,0

60,0

Russian federation

28,7

53,5

44,3

50,4

56,1

53,0

72,0

68,4

69,0

56,0

Japan

75,9

63,0

54,9

51,7

51,5

59,2

57,4

53,8

55,0

56,0

Korea

52,0

51,7

50,1

47,4

48,2

46,9

47,3

63,2

63,0

55,0

Mexico

33,2

37,1

35,1

34,5

35,4

36,2

34,6

35,0

39,8

40,8

Germany

32,1

33,6

30,4

32,3

33,5

32,4

31,5

32,1

31,1

32,7

Italy

39,8

43,3

36,4

34,4

33,1

26,2

23,1

21,4

20,8

19,3

France

19,1

21,2

18,1

18,0

19,4

18,0

17,5

16,4

15,6

15,9

South Africa

8,4

13,4

11,8

10,9

11,2

13,8

14,9

13,8

14,0

13,6

Canada

12,1

13,7

11,0

12,4

12,0

12,5

12,1

12,8

12,5

11,9

Argentina

5,5

9,7

9,4

10,4

11,6

10,7

11,9

11,8

12,2

10,9

United Kingdom

11,9

10,5

7,8

7,9

8,5

7,9

8,5

9,3

9,6

9,4

Australia

6,8

9,4

9,2

8,3

8,6

9,8

8,6

9,3

9,3

9,4

Source: CEMBUREAU US Geological Institute/Global cement Report

 

European Production

Cement production in countries members of CEMBUREAU[1] in 2016 increased by 6Mt, which is close to the 2010 production, reaching 265,6 Mt.

Some members of CEMBUREAU recorded large differences in cement consumption in 2016, as shown in the picture below. Ireland is leading with an increase in cement consumption of 30%, and Italy is at the bottom with a decrease of 5%.

In the EU28 in general, cement consumption increased by 2.3 million tons, which is an increase of 1.51% compared to the same period last year, reaching 154.2 million tons.

The increase in cement consumption was recorded in Cyprus (25.6%), Finland (14%) and Estonia (11%), while cement consumption in Portugal and Spain is still in decline.

Decrease in cement consumption was recorded in Switzerland (1,6%) and in Estonia (13%).

Source: CEMBUREAU https://cembureau.eu/media/1716/activity-report-2017.pdf

 

Serbian Production

In the trend of clinker and cement production volumes in the time from 2005 to 2015, three sub periods can be clearly notice. The first, from 2005 to 2008, is the phase of accelerated production growth resulting from strong investment and overall economic activity in this sub-period. The second, from 2009 to 2013, signify the impact of the economic crisis that has sharply affected the demand for cement as early as 2009, while stagnation and production decline lasted until 2013. The third, which includes 2014 and 2015, indicates gradual recovery. In 2014, the trend is changing, in 2015 production and consumption of cement are rising. The trend of cement production increase continued throughout 2016 and reached up to 9.9% compared to 2015, when production of 1.8 million tons of cement was recorded. Consumption of cement in 2016 reached 1.92 million tons, which represents an increase of 8.47% compared to 2015. year.

Source: Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia

 

[1] Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland , Turkey, United Kingdom, Croatia (associate member), Serbia (associate member)